[93] The work is a setting of Apollinaire's play of the same name, staged in 1917. "[87], In January 1945, commissioned by the French government, Poulenc and Bernac flew from Paris to London, where they received an enthusiastic welcome. His music, eclectic yet strongly personal in style, is essentially diatonic and melodious, embroidered with 20th Century dissonances. They were based on the poems of his circle of friends, Apollinaire, Eluard, Jacob and Aragon, whose war poem, Liberté is one of the most famous and most performed adaptations. His first serious affair was with the painter Richard Chanlaire, to whom he sent a copy of the Concert champêtre score inscribed, "You have changed my life, you are the sunshine of my thirty years, a reason for living and working". the name! The work, ending with "Liberté", could not be given in France while the Germans were in control; its first performance was broadcast from a BBC studio in London in March 1945,[85] and it was not sung in Paris until 1947. Poulenc duplicates the main theme Stravinsky’s concerto, even down to the steady eight-note accompaniment and the underlying harmony. [76] In the last years of the 1930s, Poulenc's compositions continued to vary between serious and light-hearted works. [159] He played the piano part in recordings of his Babar the Elephant with Pierre Fresnay and Noël Coward as narrators. Poulenc was a member of Les Six, the famous group of six leading composers living in France in the early twentieth century. Neglected Composers: Francis Poulenc, by WA Chislett (Gramophone, November 1928) One of Poulenc’s friends described him as ‘moitié moine, moitié voyou’ (‘half monk, half guttersnipe’), which suits his physical appearance perfectly and goes halfway to describing his music. Viñes became more than a teacher: he was, in the words of Myriam Chimènes in the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the young man's "spiritual mentor". Instrumental soloists include Britten, Jacques Février, Pierre Fournier, Emil Gilels, Yehudi Menuhin and Arthur Rubinstein. [n 16] Those disagreeing with Poulenc attempted to paint him as a relic of the pre-war era, frivolous and unprogressive. His compositions include songs, solo piano works, chamber music, choral pieces, operas, ballets, and orchestral concert music. Whether or not Poulenc originally conceived them as an integral set, he gave the eighth the title "To serve as Coda for the Cycle" (Pour servir de Coda au Cycle). [3], The chamber works of Poulenc's middle period were written in the 1930s and 1940s. [3] In all three operas Poulenc drew on earlier composers, while blending their influence into music unmistakably his own. This led him to focus on his more serious works, and to try to persuade the French public to listen to them. Francis Poulenc had little formal training as a composer and once declared proudly: “Mon canon, c’est l’instinct” (My model is my instinct). Among his works given during these trips were the American premiere of La Voix humaine at Carnegie Hall in New York, with Duval,[111] and the world premiere of his Gloria, a large-scale work for soprano, four-part mixed chorus and orchestra, conducted in Boston by Charles Munch. (1899-1963 : France), QUIZ: We can guess your dominant personality trait from, 76 percent of UK musicians will ‘stop performing in, Musicians who train from a young age have more, The best classical music and opera online streams, Band stages unique ‘space bubble’ concert to get, Baritone Roderick Williams signs as a composer: ‘Lockdown, has brought boundaries, but we can adapt’. So many wonderfully French pieces by Gabriel Fauré, but his Requiem is arguably his most famous and best-loved. Francis Poulenc (1899 – 1963) was a French composer almost as famous for his personal life as his music, including his Gloria and piano works. "[91] After their fortnight's stay, the two returned home on the first boat-train to leave London for Paris since May 1940. Their 1920 piano suite L'Album des Six consists of six separate and unrelated pieces. I was expectant but in the end so frustrated and annoyed. "[117] Keck considers Poulenc's harmonic language "as beautiful, interesting and personal as his melodic writing ... clear, simple harmonies moving in obviously defined tonal areas with chromaticism that is rarely more than passing". Poulenc was one of the first openly gay composers, who was at ease with his sexuality in the context of his religious faith. According to TrendCelebsNow.com, famous Composer Francis Poulenc's net worth is $1 Million - $5 Million. "[168] Other composers have found more merit in Poulenc's work; Stravinsky wrote to him in 1931: "You are truly good, and that is what I find again and again in your music". [92], In Paris, Poulenc completed his scores for L'Histoire de Babar, le petit éléphant and his first opera, Les mamelles de Tirésias (The Breasts of Tiresias), a short opéra bouffe of about an hour's duration. [143], The final three sonatas are for woodwind and piano: for flute (1956–57), clarinet (1962), and oboe (1962). He composed one comic opera, one monodrama (a drama designed to be performed by a single person), and one serious opera of note. In a letter to Milhaud in 1950 Poulenc, who had earlier singled out Messiaen as one of France's most promising young composers, "Je souhaite une musique saine, claire et robuste, une musique aussi franchement française que celle de Strawinsky est slave.". In 1916 a childhood friend, Raymonde Linossier (1897–1930), introduced Poulenc to Adrienne Monnier's bookshop, the Maison des Amis des Livres. [161], A 1984 discography of Poulenc's music lists recordings by more than 1,300 conductors, soloists and ensembles, including the conductors Leonard Bernstein, Charles Dutoit, Milhaud, Charles Munch, Eugene Ormandy, Prêtre, André Previn and Leopold Stokowski. Modern Period. [108], Poulenc visited the US in 1960 and 1961. His fellow composer Pierre-Octave Ferroud was killed in a car crash so violent that he was decapitated, and almost immediately afterwards, while on holiday, Poulenc visited the sanctuary of Rocamadour. [96], Shortly after the war, Poulenc had a brief affair with a woman, Fréderique ("Freddy") Lebedeff, with whom he had a daughter, Marie-Ange, in 1946. The way he tells it, French composer Francis Poulenc rediscovered th... e Catholicism of his youth while on a pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary in southern France. [166], The two sides to Poulenc's musical nature caused misunderstanding during his life and have continued to do so. [90] Bernac was overwhelmed by the public's response; when he and Poulenc stepped out on the Wigmore Hall stage, "the audience rose and my emotion was such that instead of beginning to sing, I began to weep. The comic opera, Les Mamelles de Tirésias (1947; “The Breasts of Tiresias”), is… [53], As the decade progressed, Poulenc produced a range of compositions, from songs to chamber music and another ballet, Aubade. [47][n 10] Poulenc worked with him intermittently from 1921 to 1925. It draws on a variety of stylistic sources: the first movement ends in a manner reminiscent of Balinese gamelan, and the slow movement begins in a Mozartian style, which Poulenc gradually fills out with his own characteristic personal touches. [146] Though widely varied in character, the songs are dominated by Poulenc's preference for certain poets. After initially dismissing Poulenc as a bourgeois amateur, he relented and admitted him to the circle of protégés, whom he called "Les Nouveaux Jeunes". Satie was suspicious of music colleges, but Ravel advised Poulenc to take composition lessons; Milhaud suggested the composer and teacher Charles Koechlin. In compliance with his wishes, none of his music was performed; Marcel Dupré played works by Bach on the grand organ of the church. The piece has been re-evaluated in more recent years, and in 1996 the writer Claire Delamarche rated it as the composer's finest concertante work. [3] The critic Claude Rostand later described Poulenc as "half monk and half naughty boy". With Bernac and Duval he recorded many of his own songs, and those of other composers including Chabrier, Debussy, Gounod and Ravel. A pun on the English colloquial expression "leg-pulling" – playful, humorous deception. Poulenc finished his last opera in 1958, La Voix Humaine, a work whose lone character talks (sings) on the phone to her deserting lover for the work's 45-minute length. as Les Six, only Francis Poulenc wrote works that remain in the repertoire. Other chamber works from this period are the Rapsodie nègre, FP 3, from 1917 (mainly instrumental, with brief vocal episodes) and the Trio for oboe, bassoon and piano (1926). [135] Among the piano music not mentioned, favourably or harshly, by Poulenc, the best known pieces include the two Novelettes (1927–28), the set of six miniatures for children, Villageoises (1933), a piano version of the seven-movement Suite française (1935), and L'embarquement pour Cythère for two pianos (1953). [93] Between then and the French premiere Poulenc introduced one of his most popular late works, the Flute Sonata, which he and Jean-Pierre Rampal performed in June at the Strasbourg Music Festival. In. The Elégie for horn and piano (1957) was composed in memory of the horn player Dennis Brain. [155] By the time of the last of the operas, La Voix humaine, Poulenc felt able to give the soprano stretches of music with no orchestral accompaniment at all, though when the orchestra plays, Poulenc calls for the music to be "bathed in sensuality". [106] As Poulenc was writing the last pages of his opera in October 1955, Roubert died at the age of forty-seven. He used one of the poems in two sections of the rhapsody. Francis Poulenc (1899-1963) was a French composer of instrumental and vocal works. Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc was a French composer and pianist. [138][n 24] The sonatas in this group are for violin and piano (1942–43) and for cello and piano (1948). [n 20] The work was produced in February 1959 at the Opéra-Comique, under Cocteau's direction, with Duval as the tragic deserted woman speaking to her former lover by telephone. Did you know? In that work I tried to get across the atmosphere of "peasant devotion" that had struck me so forcibly in that lofty chapel. Poulenc once saw a group of solemn-looking Benedictine monks thrashing it out in an aggressive game of football. According to Milhaud: In completely arbitrary fashion Collet chose the names of six composers, Auric, Durey, Honegger, Poulenc, Tailleferre and myself, for no other reason than that we knew each other, that we were friends and were represented in the same programmes, but without the slightest concern for our different attitudes and our different natures. Largely self-educated musically, he studied with the pianist Ricardo Viñes, who became his mentor after the composer's parents died. His works are still often performed today, and his opera, Dialogues des Carmelites, in particular is regularly programmed in many opera houses. [80] He set to music verses by poets prominent in the French Resistance, including Aragon and Éluard. His many compositions include religious works, music for solo piano, opera, ballet, chamber music, large scale orchestral and choral works, and spirited songs with beautiful melodies. [105], While working on the opera, Poulenc composed little else; exceptions were two mélodies, and a short orchestral movement, "Bucolique" in a collective work, Variations sur le nom de Marguerite Long (1954), to which his old friends from Les Six Auric and Milhaud also contributed. "[3] The commentator George Keck writes, "His melodies are simple, pleasing, easily remembered, and most often emotionally expressive. Even his sacred music had a cheeky edge: his Gloria caused a scandal due to its irreverence. There, the latter, who will have a lasting influence on Poulenc, reads his own poems and in June gives the premiere of Les Mamelles de Tirésias, a work … There's still debate among music scholars who see the diverse range of styles in his music as an outward representation of Poulenc's inner moral wrestlings. This work, Les biches, was an immediate success, first in Monte Carlo in January 1924 and then in Paris in May, under the direction of André Messager; it has remained one of Poulenc's best-known scores. Like the Mass, it is unaccompanied, and to succeed in performance it requires singers of the highest quality. [84] In 1943 he wrote a cantata for unaccompanied double choir intended for Belgium, Figure humaine, setting eight of Éluard's poems. A decisive turn in his development as a composer occurred when Francis Poulenc attracted the attention of Erik Satie, the arbiter elegantiarum of the arts and social amenities in Paris. [150] Poulenc's new-found religious theme continued with Quatre motets pour un temps de pénitence (1938–39), but among his most important choral works is the secular cantata Figure humaine (1943). The next significant reappraisal came recently in anticipation of the 50 th anniversary of the composer’s death, most notably the researcher’s collected and annotated writings of Poulenc [Poulenc, J’écris ce qui me chante, ed. He continued to write in a range of styles, penning secular tunes alongside religious pieces. Poulenc finished his last opera in 1958, La Voix Humaine, a work whose lone character talks (sings) on the phone to her deserting lover for the work's 45-minute length. [72], In the post-war period Poulenc crossed swords with composers of the younger generation who rejected Stravinsky's recent work and insisted that only the precepts of the Second Viennese School were valid. Other composers whose works influenced his development were Schubert and Stravinsky: the former's Winterreise and the latter's The Rite of Spring made a deep impression on him. [29] Stravinsky was impressed enough to use his influence to secure Poulenc a contract with a publisher, a kindness that Poulenc never forgot. This jeu d'esprit was the first of many examples of what Anglophone critics came to call "leg-Poulenc". He later set many of their poems to music. Ravel's modesty about his own music particularly appealed to Poulenc, who sought throughout his life to follow Ravel's example. FRANCIS POULENC: INTERVIEW ON HIS PIANO WORKS ‘Francis Poulenc at the Piano: Advice and Favourites’ – Interview with Claude Rostand conducted in 1953-54 . Neither of the French composers was influenced by their Austrian colleagues' revolutionary twelve-tone system, but they admired the three as its leading proponents. Born in Paris in 1899, Poulenc's mother was an amateur pianist who taught him to play. Francis Poulenc (composer 1899-1963) - Play streams in full or download MP3 from Classical Archives (classicalarchives.com), the largest and best organized classical music site on the web. Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc was born in Paris, into a wealthy family of chemical manufacturers. Listening to his music you think – it's Poulenc. [41] His literary style, "paradoxical and lapidary" in Hell's phrase, was anti-romantic, concise and irreverent. Poulenc found it "such a moving and noble work",[35] ideal for his libretto, and he began composition in August 1953. [56] Yet he was troubled, struggling to come to terms with his sexuality, which was predominantly homosexual. Poulenc had a characteristically French penchant for wind instruments that dominate his winning collection of chamber pieces including his most famous works: the trio for oboe, bassoon and piano, the sextet for wind quintet and piano, and his three final duo sonatas for piano and flute, oboe and clarinet respectively. Versatile composer whose works included art song, solo piano, chamber, oratorio, choral, opera, ballet, and orchestral. January 7, 1899 (age 64) Birthplace . Composer #121038. Francis Poulenc estimated Net Worth, Salary, Income, Cars, Lifestyles & many more details have been updated below. [67] Poulenc wrote to Bernac in 1962, "I have finished Les Ténèbres. [3] To the critic Ralph Thibodeau, the work may be considered as Poulenc's own requiem and is "the most avant-garde of his sacred compositions, the most emotionally demanding, and the most interesting musically, comparable only with his magnum opus sacrum, the opera, Dialogues des Carmélites. [31][n 6] He told Satie of this unhappy encounter; Satie replied with a dismissive epithet for Ravel who, he said, talked "a load of rubbish". [102] At about the same time Roubert became gravely ill.[n 18] Intense worry pushed Poulenc into a nervous breakdown, and in November 1954 he was in a clinic at L'Haÿ-les-Roses, outside Paris, heavily sedated. All four are characterised by their brevity – less than ten minutes each – their mischievousness and their wit, which Nichols describes as acid. Poulenc commented in 1958 how much he had come to admire Ravel and that he had been glad to be able to show it, not only in words, but as a pianist, through his interpretations of Ravel's works. Poulenc — who was born # OnThisDay in 1899 — was turning to a new period in his career. "[54] Another performer with whom the composer came to be closely associated was the harpsichordist Wanda Landowska. Before Fame. I admired him madly, because, at this time, in 1914, he was the only virtuoso who played Debussy and Ravel. Clark, Philip, "The Gramophone Interview – Pierre Boulez", List of solo piano compositions by Francis Poulenc, "A Television Transmission by the Baird Process will take place during this programme", "The Sacred Music of Francis Poulenc: A Centennial Tribute", "Constructing the Monk: Francis Poulenc and the Post-War Context", "Francis Poulenc (1899–1963) Piano Music, Volume 3", "Francis Poulenc (1899–1963) Piano Music, Volume 1", "Resonant, Resplendent Poulenc Motets, Mass, Chansons", "A recital by Pierre Bernac and Francis Poulenc", "Francis Poulenc et Denise Duval interprètent", "Plucky chicken: Sensual, witty and unfairly dismissed as lightweight", Francis Poulenc 1899–1963, the official website (French and English version), International Music Score Library Project, Guide to the Lambiotte Family/Francis Poulenc archive, 1920–1994, Divertimento for chamber orchestra after keyboard pieces by Couperin, Tanzsuite aus Klavierstücken von François Couperin, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Francis_Poulenc&oldid=1001152274, French military personnel of World War II, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 13:15. France. "[149], In an overview of the songs in 1973, the musical scholar Yvonne Gouverné said, "With Poulenc, the melodic line matches the text so well that it seems in some way to complete it, thanks to the gift which the music has for penetrating the very essence of a given poem; nobody has better crafted a phrase than Poulenc, highlighting the colour of the words. In Les Animaux modèles, premiered at the Opéra in 1942, he included the tune, repeated several times, of the anti-German song "Vous n'aurez pas l'Alsace et la Lorraine". [115] In the words of Roger Nichols in the Grove dictionary, "For [Poulenc] the most important element of all was melody and he found his way to a vast treasury of undiscovered tunes within an area that had, according to the most up-to-date musical maps, been surveyed, worked and exhausted. A farceur of the rhapsody Intermezzo was the last of three early Poulenc works his forties before attempting first... 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